Physicists believe they have cracked Stephen Hawking’s black hole information paradox - Beyond The World

Physicists believe they have cracked Stephen Hawking’s black hole information paradox

Physicists believe that they have finally cracked Stephen Hawking’s famous black hole paradox.

The research, which was published in Physical Review Letters, examines the relationships between a compact matter source’s quantum state and its asymptotic graviton field.

Black holes are exceedingly dense, with gravitational pulls that are so strong that light cannot escape. Some, known as “supermassive” black holes, are massive, such as the one at the center of our Milky Way galaxy, which is 4 million times the mass of the sun. Smaller black holes, known as “stellar-mass” black holes, have the mass of a single star.

In this representative image, Stephen Hawking can be seen along with an artist’s illustration of a black hole
Photograph: Agencies

Hawking realized about half a century ago that black holes must’shine’ in a special way. Their warping of the Universe would change the wave-like nature of surrounding quantum fields such that a form of heat radiation was produced.

Effective field theory allows us to compute a totally quantum gravitational effect, in which the graviton state’s subleading asymptotic behavior is determined by the source’s internal structure. Due to gravitational influences, this shows the existence of ubiquitous quantum hair.

Every particle in the Universe has a certain amount of information stored within it. Some of these attributes are fixed, such as mass, charge, magnetic moment, and so on.

But other properties are dependent on the system that it’s a part of, as well as the history of its interactions: things like its quantum entanglement properties, its spin and orbital angular momentum, and whether it’s bound to other quantum particles.

When analyzing black holes’ lack of visible features beyond their total mass, spin, and charge in the 1960s, physicist John Archibald Wheeler created the expression “black holes have no hair,” often known as the no-hair theorem.

Experts argue that the newly discovered ‘quantum hair’ provides a mechanism for information to be retained as a black hole collapses, resolving one of modern science’s most renowned conundrums.

”It was generally assumed within the scientific community that resolving this paradox would require a huge paradigm shift in physics, forcing the potential reformulation of either quantum mechanics or general relativity,” he said.

”A crucial aspect is that black holes are formed by the collapse of compact objects and then, according to the quantum theory, there is no absolute separation between the interior and the exterior of the black hole,” said Roberto Casadio, Professor of Theoretical Physics from the University of Bologna, explaining the discovery of the ‘quantum hair’.

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